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Optical Ground Wire (OPGW) cable is primarily used by the electric utility companies. It is placed in the secured, top most position of the transmission line where it “shields” all important conductors from lightning and simultaneously providing a telecommunications path for internal as well as third party communication needs.
OPGW cables are capable of withstanding mechanical stress applied to overhead cables by environmental factors such as wind and ice. It is also capable of handling electrical faults on the transmission line by providing a path to ground without damaging the sensitive optical fibers inside the cable.

All Dielectric Self- Supporting (ADSS) Cable is ideal for installation in distribution as well as transmission lines even where live- line installations are required. As its name indicates, there is no support or messenger wire required. Installation is achieved in a single pass, making ADSS an economical and simple means of achieving a fiber optic network.


Optical fiber cables has a number of optical fibers bundled together which are normally covered in their individual protective plastic covers. Optical cables are used to transfer digital data signals in the form of light up to distance of hundreds of kilometers with higher throughput rates than those achievable via electrical communication cables. All optical fiber use a core of hair-like transparent silicon covered with less refractive indexed cladding to avoid light leakage to the surroundings. Due to the extreme sensitivity of the optical fiber it is normally covered with a high strength lightweight protective material like Kevlar.
Optical cable is the primary source of long distance high bandwidth communications between telephone companies multisite organizations and various other long range communications applications. The composition of optical cable starts with the outer jacket which is made of strong and often flexible material. This is followed by plastic cover used to bundle individual optical fiber cable. An optical fiber typically consist of transparent core surrounded by a transparent cladding material with a lower index of refraction. Light is kept in the core by total internal reflection. Single wavelength or multiple wavelength light is passed through the core and keeps traveling inside the core due to the lower refractive index cladding surrounding it which bounces the light back when it tries to escape.
Interconnection between multiple fiber strands is much more complex and difficult to achieve, than the ones between electrical cables.

SCADA Management

Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) solutions are used by utility companies in modernization of their networks. Power plant switchyard or Independent substations SCADA system require the RTUs located within the same room to communicate with the HMI system on a high speed dual communication network preferably Ethernet or RS485 communication link. The architecture implemented for the HMI computers and RTU can be either server type of architecture or a peer to peer communication interface.
The power plant SCADA system generally have necessary communication facility for two way data communication with the Power plant DCS system to achieve control and monitoring of the switchyard from the Power plant Control room. Apart from this, some of the projects require facility for Control and Monitoring of the entire power plant from a remote control center on a PLCC link. The protocol for communication with the remote control center are generally IEC 870-5-101 or 104.
2) Security Strategies
Block your Service Set Identifier (SSID) from being broadcast.
a. Wireless beacon so PCs can easily find the access point. Change the default network name in the access point. Change the default access point password. Center the access point in the middle of the building/house.

3) Security for Substation Communication
ISO 7498-2 defines the following five categories of security service: • Authentication: The corroboration that an entity is the one claimed. • Access Control: The prevention of unauthorized use of resource. • Data confidentiality: The property that information is not made available or disclosed to unauthorized individuals, entities or processes • Data Integrity: The property that data has not been altered or destroyed in an unauthorized manner. • Non Repudiation: data appended to, or a cryptographic transformation of a data until that allows a recipient of the data unit to prove the source and integrity of the unit and protect against forgery.

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